THE UNITED KINGDOM.

PHARMACY IN  GREAT BRITAIN.

Digger Odell Publication ©2005

Excerpt from The Drug Trade in Foreign Countries, House Document Vol. 49 1898

The practice of pharmacy in Great Britain is regulated by statute. It is unlawful for any person to assume the title of chemist, druggist, pharmacist, or equivalent title, or to engage in the business of retailing, dispensing, or compounding any drugs, medicines, or medical preparations in which poisons are to any extent ingredients, unless lie shall have first passed certain prescribed examinations and have been officially registered as a chemist or a druggist, etc. A list of poisons is enumerated in the statute.

From these requirements, however, the following are exempt: Legally qualified physicians dispensing medicines to patients in their regular practice: makers and dealers in patent medicines; wholesale dealers supplying drugs in the ordinary course of wholesale dealing; and mem­bers of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.

The matter of examination and registry is by statute, committed to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, au incorporated body which appoints the boards of examiners and registers, determines the nature, extent, times, and places of the examinations, and publishes from time to time its rules and regulations relating thereto, and also complete lists of registered chemists, druggists, pharmaceutical chemists, etc.

This association is also charged with the duty of revising and publishing periodically the list of "poisons" referred to. The examinations are classified as follows:

(a) In the "First examination," which is academic only, being for registration as "apprentices" or "students," the subjects are Latin, English, and arithmetic. As a substitute for this examination, the boards of examiners may accept certificates of study and successful examination in the same branches from certain specified English univer­sities and schools of pharmacy of established repute.

(b) The "Minor examination" being for registration as "chemists" and "druggists." The subjects are chemistry and physics, botany, materia medica, pharmacy, and kindred branches. The applicant must have passed the "First examination," and also furnish proof of three years' practical experience and service as apprentice or student.

(c) The "Major examination," being for registration as "pharma­ceutical chemist," the subjects are substantially the same as for the

"minor," but the tests are more minute and rigid.

All these examinations are imperative for the several registrations, and no certificates or diplomas from schools of pharmacy or medical institutes in foreign countries, however eminent, will be accepted in lieu of them.

The chemist, druggist, or pharmaceutical chemist thus qualified and registered may freely engage in the business of preparing, dispensing, and selling drugs and medicines of all descriptions.

Touching the sale of "poisons" or preparations containing poisons special rules are prescribed.

Two schedules of poisons are recited in the statute, both of which are from time to time revised and extended by authority of the Pharmaceutical Society.

It is unlawful to sell any of these poisons unless the same is labeled with the mime of the article, the word "poison,", and the name and address of the seller; and none of the poisons named in the first schedule may be sold except to persons personally known to the seller, or introduced by a person known to the seller, and, in addition, record must be made of the date of the sale, name and address of the purchaser, name and quantity of the article sold, and the name, intended, which record must be signed by the purchaser, and (if so) the introduces.

The registered chemist or druggist may have clerks, apprentices, or assistants unregistered, who may, and often do, prepare and dispense medicines, but all their acts are presumed to be done under the supervision of their employer, and, in contemplation of law, are his acts.

3, 4. IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

By far the bulk of the drugs, chemicals, perfume;;, and sundries sold are manufactured in Great Britain, but a number of proprietary articles and medical preparations of American and continental make are handled and are popular.

It is not possible, however, to give complete lists of these or to state the quantities or values for this consular district separately, as there are no importation's direct. The figures for the entire United Kingdom will doubtless be furnished in the report of tine consul-general.)

There are numerous medical preparations manufactured in England which ;ire of the same general nature as like preparations of American nut! continental make, but they can not properly be styled "imitations,", They are the prod nets of English skill and invention, independent of work along the same lines by chemists of other countries.

Printed copies of the statutes in force relating to the practice of pharmacy and the latest publication of the British Pharmaceutical Society, prescribing rules and subjects for the examinations, are here­with transmitted, as furnishing further information and in greater detail.

SALE OF DRUGS IN LAY STORES.

Drugs and medicines, not containing poisonous elements, may he freely sold by anyone, and am-c largely sold in department stores and village shops, as well as proprietary- articles and all descriptions of druggists' sundries.

The competition is keen and the price lists are frequently cut, both by regular chemists and other dealers.

G. PRESCRIPTIONS.

The prescription trade is not all extensive feature of the business. Many physicians prepare and supply medicines of all descriptions to their patients directly from their private surgeries.

When a prescription is filled by a chemist it is the sale to make a copy in a book kept for that purpose and file original returned to the


THE DRUG TRADE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

customer. who may use it again elsewhere. Renewals are made whenever called for, and copies are given at the discretion of the chemist.

There is no distinction between the prescription drug business and other drug-selling establishments, and there is no limitation by law as to extent or number of drug stores in any locality.

BENJAMIN F. STONE, Consul.

HUDDERSFIELD, March 29, 15:98.

 

 

ENGLAND.
BIRMINGHAM.
2. DRUGGIST V.. PHARMACIST.

The strictly prescription or dispensing drug store has here, as it has in the United States, almost completely disappeared.

While they do not take as "want" advertisements for the newspapers, sell cigars or cigarettes, act as agents for express companies, and do not have SW-water fountains, the English chemist shops in the mid­lands are in every other respect the same places of public convenience and accommodation as are the American drug stores. A favorite sign in acknowledgment of this general character of business reads: -Dispensing chemist and general supply stole."

 

14. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS O1' DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

There are nine days remaining of the first quarter of the year 1898, and the chemical and drug exportations to the United States recorded for this period in my in Voice hook reaches a total of $23,380.11

 

This is an inland point. and statistics of importation from the United States are not available. The wholesale druggists state that they

.

import from the United States crude drugs and standard roots mainly. Seneca root, crude petroleum, oil of peppermint, cascara, and beeswax are mentioned.

It the counters and shelves of the chemists are many American pro­prietary articles and patent medicines, but some of these are manufactured in England by the American owners and some, by English companies which have purchased the rights and good will from American owners, and on many of them there is an attempt to give an English stamp and character, with a purpose of evading certain strong prejudices toward foreign productions. This makes it difficult to ascertain to what extent there is an imitation of American medical preparations. lit London there is a big colony of American patent medicine people, and the most extensively and most successfully advertised pat­ent medicines and proprietary articles seem to be American. There are some very familiar names en the advertising columns of the English papers.

Concerning the, protection of', and rights in medical preparations 1 refer our pharmaceutical association to tine calendar of tine Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. I enclose a copy of this publication for 1893.*

 

5. SALE OF DRUGS IN DEPARTMENT STORES..

The small chemist of Great Britain is suffering as keenly from the competition of the big department or general stores as is the druggist of the United States. The department stores cut all rates, make ter­rific special drives, and dispense prescriptions, employing of necessity registered chemists. Lt addition, the druggist has to meet the compe­tition of combinations of drug stores which are run on what is called the multiple, system, a great number of chemist shops owned by one man or by a public company. This multiple system has grown to greater proportions here than en the United States, strings of stores of a kind existing in many branches of trade and making, as a whole, an effective fight against the encroachments of the department or general stores. Of course the single-store proprietor, whether he be a chemist, grocer, tobacconist, or shoe MAN, has to compete against the ability of both multiple and department store systems to purchase cheaply', because of their ability to buy in large quantities.

A leading chemist of Birmingham, the secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, expresses the wish that the pharmaceutical societies of Great Britain and the United States world combine to strengthen the druggists' position in relation to "protected lists." lie hopes for all international agreement, believing it, would be bene­ficial and effective in view of the fact that many of the proprietary articles and patent medicines are now sold on both sides of the Atlantic.

The British chemists have national and local trade organizations, supplementary to the pharmaceutical association proper.


The Midland Pharmaceutical Trade Society has monthly meetings and has a standing committee to regulate the prices on proprietary articles and to deal with individual manufacturers and with the proprietors' association.

I inclose a copy of the Anti-Cutting Record, which is published monthly under the auspices of the drug trade association, of which there are :3,000 members.

MARSHAL. HALSTED, Consul.

BIRMINGHAM March 24, 1898.

BRISTOL.

w                                                                                                                    r

3, .1. t EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

Drugs, chemicals. Proprietary articles, etc.., are not exported from Bristol to the United States, but two local wholesale firms have built up a considerable general trade with the British colonies in druggists' sundries and in surgical implements.

In the local prices current are to be found the following commodities imported from the United States:

Avers Cherry Pectoral.                                     Lundborg's Perfumes.

Barry's Tricophereus.                                      McKessoN & Robbins's Pills.

Bromo-phosphate.                                           Park Davit \. Co.'s Cascara Cordial.

Brandreth's Pills.                                             Pasta stack.

Brandreth's Plaster.                                          Tierce's Pellets.

California Fig Syrnp.                                        Tierce's Golden Discovery.

Carnrick's Peptonoids.                                     Pierre's Favorite Prescription,

Carter's Liver }'ills.                                            Seabury &..Johnson's Ptasters. Cuticura Preparations. St. Jacob's Oil.

Davis's (Perry) Pain Killer.                  Sozodont.

Denaeyer's Meat Peptone.                               Susquehanna Pills.

Himrod's Asthma Cure.                                   Townsend's I Liniment and Pills.

Hood's Sarsaparilla.                                         Vaseline.

Hood's Pills and Ointment.                             Wight's Beef Juice.

The above list is considerably extended in London, and probably also in Liverpool. Such preparations as are now made in England, under arrangement with the American proprietary (such as Winslow Sooth­ing Syrup. Warner's Preparations, etc..), are not included in the above list. There is adequate protection for trade-marks in England, and colorable imitations are not tolerated by the courts.

SALES OF DRUGS, ETC, IN DEPARTMENT' STORES.

All drugs, chemicals, proprietary articles, etc.., are sold in Bristol at cash stores, and the prices there are below those of the ordinary druggist

*Filed in the Bureau of Foreign Commerce.


BRISTOL, April 21, 1898.

who gives credit. There are, however, large retail cash drug stores in Bristol whose prices are as low as those of the stores.

 

LORIN A. LATHROP, Consul.

FALMOUTH.

There are no drugs, chemicals, perfumes, etc.., exported to other countries from here. Neither are any such imported here from the United States. The druggists get all their supplies from London or other large centers in England. I am not aware that there is the slightest imitation of American goods here. Should such be so, the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain world doubtless quickly deal with it.

Some of the patent medicines and nonpoisonous preparations are sold to a small extent by a few grocers (or rather undersold).

HOWARD FOX, Consul.

FALMOUTH, March 31, 1898.

LIVERPOOL.
1. THE DRUGS.

The drug business is conducted quite independently, there being no restriction as to the number of pharmacies or drug stores or to the extent of the same which may be owned by one person or a company. Only one class of drug establishments exists in Great Britain, but there are two classes of qualified chemists-viz, chemists and drug­gists and pharmaceutical chemists. There is, however, no distinctions between there so far as their rights in carrying on their businesses are concerned.

3. 4. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND CHEMICALS.

Regarding the export froth this port of drugs, chemicals, proprietary articles, perfumery, druggists' sundries, etc., I send herewith a copy of an illustrated English prices current, recently published by one of the largest exporting houses in this city. The articles therein listed are exported to various parts of the world except the Continent of Europe, which market, so far as Great Britain is concerned, is supplied princi­pally from London. The exports of "medicines, comprising drugs and medicinal preparations'' the produce and manufactures of the United Kingdom, for the year 1896 from Liverpool, amounted to .$629.797; also "drugs unenumerated" to the value of $212,718 of foreign and colonial origin. The exports to the united States are comparatively small; in fact there have not been any recently from this port.


THE DRUG TRADE IN TILE' UNITED KINGDOM.                                         

There are a number of American proprietary articles imported into this city, such as- Florida Water." " Pain killer," "Pain Exterminator," " Ready Relief," and others. but the demand for such goods is said mot to he very great. A large number of the proprietary articles so imported, as a rule, are transshipped in bond to other countries. The official figures for the year 15 91) show that drugs unenumerated to the value of $538,429 were imported into Liverpool; part of these goods to the value of $242,718 was so transshipped.

REVENUE STAMPS ON MEDICAL PREPARATIONS.

Patents of American origin, such as "pills," etc., are sold in this city, like other goods of kindred character, under the regulations of the inland revenue department, which require revenue stamps to be placed on each packet containing the patent medicine, as follows: Medicines mot exceeding in selling price the sutra of 24 cents, bear a 3-cent stamp; exceeding 24 cents and not exceeding 60 cents. a 6-cent stamp; exceeding 60 cents and not exceeding 97 cents, a 12 cent, stamp; exceeding 97 cents and not exceeding $2.43, a 24-cent stamp; exceeding $2.43 and not exceeding $4.86 cents, a 48-cent Stamp; exceeding $4.86 and not exceeding ,$7.29 cents, a 7;3 cent stamp; exceeding $7.29 and not exceeding $12.16, a $4.86 stamp; exceeding $12.16, a $4.86 stamp. I am unable to learn of any imitation of American medical preparations or proprietary articles being sold in this city.

5. SALE OF DRUGS IN LAY STORES.

Patent medicines and proprietary articles are sold by the large stores and grocers, many of whom devote a special department to that branch of business. Drapers, grocers, etc... who thus sell patent medicines are mot dependent upon the profit for the maintenance of their establish­ments; accordingly they are able to -gent" the prices. probably for

advertising and other purposes, and thus it is claimed by the chemist they seriously prejudice the position of the trading chemist. In most Cases patent medicines are sold under the price or prices printed upon the wrappers, and in many cases considerably so. For example, take a leading patent medicine, such as pills, the recognized retail price of which is. say, 27 cents, the stores sell at 19 cents per box, and in some instances nuttier that figure. The chemists consequently lower their prices, but as a rule not to the same extent its the stores. To illustrate this I forward price lists of two of the principal stores.*

6;,7. PRESCRIPTIONS..

Prescription, cite and may be dispensed at any pharmacy in tile country, and its a rule patent medicines, proprietary articles, perfumes, etc., can be obtained at the same establishments.

There is no law in regard to the final disposition of physicians' pre­scriptions when once filed with the chemist. The custom is fin. the

chemist to copy the prescription into a book, number it, and then return it to the customer with the medicine. Before doing so he usually stamps it with his name, address, and date. The book in which prescriptions are copied remains the chemist's property, and lie retains it permanently. This is done for his protection in the event of any dispute arising as to the component parts of the medicine or the direction, and also that he may be able to renew the medicine in case of the original prescription being lost. The number and date of the prescription is also placed on the packet containing the medicine.

There is no law, either, governing the renewal of prescriptions. Chemists renew them as often as requested, but they are expected to exercise discretion in the repeated renewals of powerful medicines, the constant use of which aright prove harmful, and the pharmaceutist would in all probability advise the patient not to continue taking such medicine without the supervision and advice of the physician. As a rule, I believe that pharmacists refuse to give copies of prescriptions unless at the request of the prescriber, but this is entirely discretional.

8. PRACTICE OF PHARMACY.

The practice of pharmacy in this city is regulated by the Pharma­ceutical Society of Great Britain. This society was founded in 1841* by chemists and druggists in business, who voluntarily associated themselves for the promotion of pharmaceutical education and for the protection of common interests. In 1843 the royal charter of incorpo­ration was granted, which gave official recognition to the voluntary body and empowered the making of by-laws regulating the admission of members, associates, and apprentices. Membership was then open to all persons established in business on their own account; also those who, after examination, should be certified to be competent to carry on business. Associateship was specifically confined to the assistants of chemists and druggists.

In 1852 an act was passed which created a means of ascertaining the names of persons of known competency, by providing for the maintenance of a register of pharmaceutical chemists, and penalties were imposed on unregistered persons who assumed the title of "pharma­ceutical chemist" or ."pharmaceutist." But in 1868 an act was passed declaring it expedient for the safety of the public that  persons known as chemists and druggists should possess a competent practical knowledge of their business." A register of such persons was created, and the following persons were eligible for registration

. (1) All persons in business on their own account before the passing of the act.

(2) All persons registered under the statute of 1852.

(3) All persons who should obtain from the statutory boards of examiners certificates of competency, skill, and knowledge, but con­nection with the society continued to be optional, as it had ever been.

See supplement.

The legal qualification at the present time to carry on the business of a chemist and druggist is registration under the pharmacy act, 1868, hence a person must complete the curriculum and grass the requisite examination.

Persons holding diplomas from American colleges of pharmacy are not eligible for registration. and cannot practice their profession until they pass the examination of the Pharmaceutical Society. '1 'here is no law, however, to prevent anybody from selling ordinary drugs and patent medicines, but most poisons are scheduled, and in these only qual­ified registered persons can deal, so far as retailing them is concerned. Any person can trade wholesale without being on the register, and can deal in the scheduled poisons, provided he supplies the drugs in large quantities to the trade, but he mist not supply the general public with small quantities.

 

W. .I. Vice-Consul

 

LIVERPOOL. March 24, 1898

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE.
3. EXPORTS OF DRUGS AND CHEMICALS.

There are no perfumes, proprietary articles. or druggists' sundries manufactured here that I am aware of.

The following shows the quantity in tons (`?,210 pounds) of exports of chemicals, etc., from the Tyne during the year ending December 31, 1897:

The present market prices of chemicals exported from here to the United States are as follows: Caustic soda, 312. t, and $30 per ton; carbonate of magnesia, $9.13 to 311 per hundredweight; ammonia, 6 cents per pound; sal ammoniac. $170 per ton; mineral lump carbonate of barytes, from $18.25 to $19.47 per ton; bleaching powder, softs, $29.20, bards, $30.42 per ton; hyposulphite of soda, 321.90 to -k23.12 per ton; pearl hardening, X512.16 to $11.60 per ton; soda crystals, $12.6-7 per ton.

I. IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND CHEMICALS.

The following is an analysis of imports of chemicals into the Tyne during the year ending December 31, 1897:

5 SALE OF DRUGS IN LAY STORES

All drugs. chemicals, etc... except scheduled poisons, may be and are sold in la stores. Some owners of proprietary articles insist on a minimum price being obtained from the public.

HORACE W. METCALF. Consul..

NEWCASTLE ON-TYNE„ March 9, 1898.

NOTTINGHAM.

3, 4. EXPORTS AND IMPORT OF DRUGS AND

Drugs, chemicals, proprietary articles, druggists' sundries, etc.., are not compounded or exported from this district to the United States or other countries. Hence there is a broad field awaiting the introduction and sale of these products by enterprising dealers from the United States.

Drugs, chemicals, proprietary articles, druggists' sundries, etc.., are not carried in stock within this district. Dealers depend wholly on London representatives for this class of American goods in London.

By reason of cheap postage (parcels post) an article may be procured in a few hours at a cost of front to 5 cents.

I ean not Find that any :American medical preparation is imitated here.

Laws are especially stringent here as against imitations or ', pira­ting" whenever trade marks have been tiled.

:SALE OF' DRUGS IN LAY STORES.

There are no department stores here, and all articles in the line named are relegated to what are known here as "chemists' shops."

 

A. 1). DICKINSON, Consul.

NOTTINGHAM, March 30, 1898'.

  

SHEFFIELD.
:3, 1. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

Drugs, chemicals, and druggists' sundries are not exported from this district to the United States, and there are no statistics to show exports from this district to other countries. A quantity of drugs, chemicals, and proprietary articles of American manufacture are consumed here, the source of supply being London importers. There are but few medical preparations, American or otherwise, that arc not imitated in this country unless the preparation is protected by regis­tration here.

5. SALE OF DRUGS IN LAY STORES.

Drags and proprietary articles are sold by grocers, perfumes by drapers, and in some districts to a large extent. Proprietary articles have the most extensive sale, and these are (undersold.

 

JAMES JOHNSON, Consul.

SHEFFIELD, March 11, 1898.

 

178                THE DRUG TRADE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. SOUTHAMPTON.

3, 1. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

The chief articles exported from Great Britain to the United States consist of the finest chemicals and such proprietary articles as arc advertised throughout the world.

The chief imports from America are patent medicines and medical preparations and pills for the use of surgeons, hospital appliances, bandages and cotton, petroleum, jellies, toilet articles, etc.. The goods of Messrs. Parks, Davis & Co., may be instanced as the style of goods sold here; American preparations are not imitated, because the trade-marks act protects titles and name,.

. SALE: OF DRUGS IN LAY STORES.

Toilet articles, perfumes, and proprietary articles are undersold in drag stores, also in drapers (dry goods) and general stores, usually a profit of 4 to 5 per cent only being charged.

LICENSES TO SELL. PATENT MEDICINE.

Patent-medicine licenses are granted to any dealer, be he chemist, draper, or grocer, to sell patent medicines, i. e., such articles as hear the patent-medicine stamp of the Government, and, although these dealers can rout sell a poison within the meaning of the pharmacy act, they frequently do sell a compounded poison such as "chlorodyne," it being protected by a patent-medicine stamp.

WARNER S. KINKEAD, Consul.

SOUTHAMPTON, March 29, 1898.

TUNSTALL.

There are no drugs or chemicals exported from Tunstall.

Everything in the way of druggists' supplies comes to my district from London, so that it is impossible to trace them beyond that. I have found the following by their external marks: The preparations of Parks. Davis & Co., of Detroit, Warner's Pills; Carter's Little Liver Pills; White's Seigels Syrup; Munyon's Remedies; William's fink Pills for Pale People: and Cuticura.

No known imitation, of American preparations are made. Trade­marks registered are protected and adulteration punished by law. There are prosecutions, too, against those selling things which are not as represented.

 

There are only  small department stores here, without a great variety

of departments; but grocers sell drugs and patent. medicines and at a lower p: be than asked in the drug stores.

The following clipping. which appeared in to-day's Staffordshire Sentinel, answers one of the queries with much force:

For acting as :in apothecary with an American diploma, but without having obtained the necessary English certificate, J. Tempest Oswaleltwistle was yesterday mulcted in the penalty of C20, at the Blackburn County court. The defendant contended that he prescribed as a provisional surgeon, for which lie was qualified, and

not ,is an apothecary.

Wm. HARRISON BRADLEY,

 TUNSTALL, .March 11, 1898 IRELAND.

1. THE DRUG BUSINESS

The drug business in Ireland is conducted independently and is not regulated, as to extent and number of stores, by the Government. Cer­tain laws are in force regulating the practice of pharmacy and the sale of drugs containing poison. The conditions of the laws being com­plied with, there is no restriction as to the number of persons vending such drugs.

The calendar of the Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland sent here­with, marked Appendix A,* contains the legislative enactments applicable to the business. They embrace the pharmacy act (Ireland)1875 amendment act, 1890; the sale of poisons act (Ireland), 1870; the arsenic act, 1851, and the regulations of' the pharmaceutical society made in pursuance of the pharmacy act, 1875, which have been approved by the Government. These laws apply to all Ireland.

2. DRUGGIST V. PHARMACIST.

There is a distinction between pharmaceutical chemists and regis­tered druggists, the former alone being allowed to dispense prescrip­tions. There is a class called chemists and druggists who a m allowed to dispense prescriptions, having been in business a certain number of year, before the passage of the pharmaceutical act, but their number is decreasing each year. For the number of each class, see Appendix A, pages 152 and 153.

3, .4. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES

There may be a small quantity of veterinary medicines exported from Ireland, but the business is practically nil.

Filed in Bureau of Statistics.


Aside from Vaseline, cotton-seed oil, and Fellows"', Syrup, there are practically no drugs, chemicals, etc., imported direct, American proprietary articles, etc.., are sold here to a considerable extent. A list, marked appendix B, contains about 125 articles sold in one of the largest drug stores in Dublin. They are grouped under the following heads: Large demand. medium demand, and small demand. Also a list of similar goods sold in a country "medical hall," marked _Appendix C, which will give an idea of the country trade.

So far as I am able to ascertain, there is no actual counterfeiting of proprietary articles, but those articles that have been well advertised and have a considerable sale are imitated. There are Little Liver Pills in imitation of Carter's, and Pink fills in imitation of Williams's, and imitations of Vaseline, also of hood's Sarsaparilla and syrup of figs. The best class of stores do not sell these imitations, or it' they do, they state what they are, but always give their customers what they ask for. There are establishments here as elsewhere who try to sell something ''Just as good."

At a first-class hair-dressing; establishment there were for sale Lanman's Florida Water, Imperial flair Dyes. Mrs. S. A. Allen's Hair Restorer, and Cashmere Bouquet Soap (Colgate's). They also offered American Sea Foam for shampooing, and American hay Mull, both put in, by the proprietor and so labeled. The bay rum was marked "triple extract," but made from bay oil.

'There are laws prohibiting the imitation of medical preparations Whether imported or of domestic manufacture. These are general laws and in case of infringement can be enforced by the person whose interests are affected by the imitation. They are the trade-marks acts.

5. SALE OF DRUGS IN LAY STORES

All drugs, chemicals, proprietary articles, etc+., coming under the pharmacy acts are sold in department or special shops, and owing to the great competition in trade the standard prices are not maintained, as when one retailer cuts down the standard prices the others follow.

6, 7. PHYSICIANS

There is 110 law regulating the final disposition of physicians' prescriptions, but the practice always observed is for the druggist to return the prescription to the owner when it has been tilled. the druggist keeps a copy in his books, which he registers by a number. The owner can always get the prescription dispensed by bringing it to the druggist again or taking it to a different one. in ease the prescription is lost by the owner he cap always get it dispensed from the copy retained by the druggist, if the registered number or approximate date be known. The registration by the druggist of the prescriptions adds a valuable interest to his trade. As a prescription is of a confidential nature, druggists can only give copies to the owner of the prescription or to the physician who prescribed it.

S. PRACTICE OF PHARMACY.

Section ''I of the pharmacy act, 1875, enacts:

For the purpose of ascertaining the qualification o1' persons desirous of keeping open shops for retailing, dispensing, or compounding poisons or medical prescriptions, end teeing registered as pharmaceutical chemists under this act, the said council

shall cause examinations to be hold.

And further:

All persons desirous of teeing registered as pharmaceutical chemists ruder this act ' may present themselves for examination, end they shall be examined with respect to their knowledge of the Latin and English languages, of arithmetic, of botany, of mat in a medica. of pharmaceutical end general chemistry, of practical

pharmacy, of the British pharmacopoeia, end of such other subjects as may Lo prescribed by any regulations wad(, in pursuance of this act.

By section 30 it is enacted

It shall be unlawful for any person to sell or keep open shop for retailing, dispensing, or compounding poison, or medical prescriptions unless such per- n be registered as a pharmaceutical chemist under this act.

Under section 15 of the amending act, 1890, it is provided that no person, shall assume the title of a registered druggist or chemist and druggist or sell poisons unless he is registered under the act, and section 17 provides that shops for the sale of poisons or compounding medical prescriptions must be personally managed by the owner or by a qualified assistant.

Under the foregoing provisions, persons holding diplomas front American colleges of pharmacy call not be allowed to practice in Ireland as pharmacists until they satisfy the council of the Pharmaceutical Society of lreland of their competency and become registered under the acts referred to. Even English pharmacists must be regis­tered before they can practice in Ireland.

There is a complaint that some American preparations have been largely advertised and a considerable call made for the goods, and the retailer stocked. Then the advertising ceased, demand fell  off, leaving a stock on hand unsalable. This is mentioned of prominent articles, and gives the retailer cause to hesitate about buying our goods. Not­withstanding this, however, it is the opinion of a number of the leading dealers that it' they could have the goods direct, instead of buying through London or Liverpool. the trade could be increased.

As the Lord Line of steamers dispatch a ship about twice a month direct to Dublin from Baltimore, our druggists would find it to their advantage to extend their trade direct with Ireland.

JOSHUA WILBOUR, Consul.

DUBLIN, August 5, 1898.


QUEENSTOWN March 1898.

DANIEL SWINEY, Consul.

CORK.

The drug business in this district is not regulated by the Government. drugs, With the exception of poisons-which May only be sold by authorized chemists-may be sold by any one, and are largely dealt in by grocers and others. Prescriptions may only be filled by duly authorized chemists-that is, persons who bare studied in a pharmacal college and received a diploma from same. A diploma from such college in England is good in Scotland, and vice versa, but any person holding such diploma from England or Scotland may not, on such, practice in Ireland. It is impossible for tile to give a detailed list of drugs exported to the United States and other countries, or of imports from the United States. A great many American preparations are imitated, and there is no law prohibiting such imitation, except when the original is patented in this country.

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SCOTLAND.
1.'THE BUSINESS.

In Scotland the drug business is conducted independently and free from governmental restriction as to extent and number of stores.


184               THE DRUG TRADE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

3, 4. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES.

There are, no wholesale drug establishments in this consulate and no drugs, chemicals, proprietary articles, perfumes. and druggists' sundries are exported. All American articles of the above named classes that enter this consulate are purchased from importers in London. Glasgow, and Edinburgh.

Imitations of medical preparations are prohibited by law, but no imitations of American medical preparations are found here.

5. SALES OF DRUGS IN LAY STORES

Drugs, chemicals, proprietary articles, perfumes, and druggists' Sundries are sold in Scotland in department and grocery stores (shops to an alarming extent, from a druggist's point of view) so much so that an effort is now being made to augment the membership of the pharmaceutical society by amending the acts of IS 52 and 1868.

The primary object of this proposed amendment is to increase ]lie power of the association and enable it ultimately to secure legislation that will protect the retail drug trade from the ruinous competition of department and grocery stores, in which drugs and druggists' sundries are undersold.

I inclose copies of Pharmacy Acts Amendment Bill and 'raft Phar­macy Bill, 1898. The bill has now passed the second reading.

J. N. McCUNN, Consul.

DUNFERMLINE, March 21, 1898.